African Geographical Regions

									Jeremy Hubble
									World History I-2
									April 1, 1990

The African continent is divided into four main climate regions. The primary climate zones of Africa are the savannah, the rain forest, the desert, and the Mediterranean.

The word savannah is defined as 'a tract of lowland covered with low vegetation'. The majority of the African land is classified as being a savannah. There is generally enough rainfall to support farming, but it is often undependable, and can cause a drought one year after causing floods the previous years. Therefore, methods of irrigation can become important in a savannah region. Portions of the Nile, Niger, Zambezi, and Congo rivers are located in savannah regions. The Kordofan and Anhara plateaus are also located in savannah regions. Additionally, the lakes Nyasa, Victoria and Rudolf are located there. The Savannah region spans most of middle Africa and western Madagascar. The countries Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angolia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Madagascar, Tanzania, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and many others include savannah regions.

The rain forest is located in the central tropical regions of Africa. It is so named because of the large amounts of rain, and the hot forests that grow up in the regions. Because the rain washes away much of the soil nutrients, people cannot depend on farming. Also, the humid climate is the ideal breeding ground for many insects, and some, such as the tsetse fly can cause fatal diseases. Because of the fly's ability to carry sleeping sickness into other animals, people do not depend on eating sheep or cattle. People are required to adapted their ways to limited gathering and farming methods of obtaining food. The nations of Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Madagascar and other countries include regions in the rain forest region. The Congo River, and portions of the Niger river are located in the rain forest region.

The desert is the second largest region in Africa. The desert region receives very little rainfall, and thus only a few grasses and shrubs can grow there. Some people who live in the desert regions dig wells at oasis areas in order to obtain the water they need to farm. Other people are herders. Travel in the African deserts is also difficult, and the most common way to travel is by the camel. The desert climate also requires the people to build adequate shelters, and hunt for adequate water. Small portions of the Nile and Niger rivers are located in desert regions. The Ahaggar and Tibesti mountains are located in the desert. Also, Lake Chad and the Kordofan Plateau are located near the desert borders. The primary African deserts are the Sahara, Libyan, Kalahari, and Namib. Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Zambia, Votswani, Nambia, and many other African countries include desert regions.

The final African region is the Mediterranean region, so named because the majority of this region lies bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This region is characterized by a mild climate, similar to that of Southern Europe. Because of the climate, people developed methods of farming. The Atlas and Drak Ensberg mountains are located in Mediterranean regions. The Nile and Zambezi rivers carry the Mediterranean region further inland along their banks. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, South Africa, Egypt, and other countries are include countries in the Mediterranean region. ??