In this analysis of terrorism, I have divided the problems into two areas:Problems for countries due to the threat imposed on them by others or internal radicals, and strains in diplomatic relations because of a nation's (possibly) state sponsored internal terrorist groups. Obviously, the internal one overlaps and that is a problem for just about every country.
We begin with Israel, a Jewish state amid a collaboration of radical Muslim states. In 1982 Israel controlled the West Bank region and the E sector of the city of Jerusalem (both once part of Jordan), the Gaza strip, and the Golan Heights area of SW Syria;these territories had been during the Arab- Israeli War of 1967. Israel had also captured the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, but it had been returned by April 1982. The Arab-Israeli War of 1967, or the Six Day War, was basically Israel pounding Syria, Jordan, and Egypt due to military provocation especially by Egyptian president Nasser. This was followed by an upsurge of Palestinian Arab nationalism. Several guerrilla organizations within the palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) carried out terrorist attacks on Israeli schools, marketplaces, bus stations, and airports, with the stated objective of "redeeming Palestine". Terrorist attacks at home and abroad unified public opinion against recognition of and negotiation with the PLO, but the group nevertheless succeeded in gaining widespread international support, including UN recognition as "the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinians".
Thus Israel's problem with terrorism lies not only in the loss of life, limb, property, and security, but also in strained relations between it and its neighbors-underlying attacks by its radical neighbors. The clandestine warfare waged by PLO and other resistance groups against official and military targets in Israel is indeed one of the most eminent of terrorist acts today.
The problems caused by bountiful terrorist actions originating from the populations or even supported by the state can be manifold in the strained relations with the major powers. This strain can be a poignant problem for countries such as Libya and Lebanon, aside from the sore reputation and support the world people gives.
The PLO is largely representative of this. In 1978 Israel invaded Southern Lebanon in an attempt to eliminate Palestinian bases after a civil ware vaguely ended between the Lebanese PLO backed Muslims and Maronite dominated Phalange faction. In June 1982 Israel invaded again, overrunning the PLO. Later Bashir Gemayaal, the elected president of Lebanon, was assassinated.
Although Lebanon has followed a delicately balanced policy with its neighbors and world powers, a growing Syrian presence forced most Lebanese leaders to support Arab unity. After Israel kicked out Arafat (a PLO leader), United States Marines came in to help secure peace in lebanon. They were bombed by a kamikaze drive of a Shiite Muslim. The active rebels al;so bombed the U.S. embassy, killing many Lebanese officials. In these and many other hostile acts PLO and Shiite Muslims against Lebanese government and other friendly forces, Lebanon has had a growing threat of terrorism from within. Although not state sponsored, the Lebanon state government is so weak that these acts are increasingly easier to carry out and quite popular.
Libya, on the other hand, has played a key role in actual terrorist activities. Its support for the Palestine Liberation Organization later expanded to barely concealed subsidies for terrorists in other nations, and in the 1980's the regime was believed to be linked to a campaign of assassinations against Libyan dissidents residing abroad.
Libyan relations with the U.S. deteriorated markedly in 1981, especially after two Libyan fighter planes were shot down by U.s>Navy jets over the Gulf of Sidra. In 1982 the U.S. imposed an embargo on all Libyan oil imports. THese pro PLO attacks by Libyan leader Muammer Al-Qaddafi generally hurt the diplomatic, economic, and social aspects of Libya. In acts such as the hijacking of the Ocean cruiser Achille Lauro off the coast of Egypt and the murder of a U.S. Jewish passenger by Libyan sponsored PLO members, extremists have dramatized the international ramifications of terrorism. Thus, Libya is one with grave problems in the area of being rejected by others due to the sponsorship of terrorism.
Moving to Europe, terrorism has also played a key part in the revolts against British rule of Ireland. Although it has been going on for centuries, technological advances, resulting in both greater destructiveness and smaller size of weapons, the means available to terrorists for quick movement and rapid communication, and the more extensive worldwide connections of the groups chosen victims have recently enabled terrorists to start gaining other Western nations' attentions to the insurrections and revolts going on. Because bombings, assassinations, and kidnapping carry the message effectively, not to mention installing fear in the populace, these terrorist acts will likely continue.
Because the Irish Republican Army is not state sponsored nor carries approval of the majority it represents (as well as the horrid way in which it has carried out its rebellions), the IRA can be defined in good taste as a terrorist organization. Sporadic bombings after world War II (it sided with the Germans), the IRA underwent a split where radicals, or provisionals emerged. They continued to espouse terrorism and used disaffection among Protestants and Roman Catholics to ensue a murderous civil war. Recent murders and assassinations of prominent world figures such as Earl Mountbatten of Burma have made terrorism a great threat to the safety of the people of Ireland and Great Britain.
Terrorists convey a message of "No matter how big and powerful you are, no matter how small we are, we can hurt you if you don't do what we want." This is no exception for the United States of America. Through history, there have been many terrorist organizations (Mooly Maguires, etc.) with some of them around today. The most prominent of these is the ku klux klan. Although it started as a prankish social organization, its activities were soon directed against the Republican Reconstruction governments and their leaders, both black and white. The Klansmen regarded the reconstruction governments as hostile and oppressive. THey also generally believed in the innate inferiority of blacks and therefore mistrusted and resented the rise of former slaves to a status of civil equity and often to positions of political power. They used violence and flogged, mutilated, and murdered those who got in their way. Today, approximately 15 separate klan organizations exist, including the knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the United Klans of America, and the National Klan. A resurgence of violence occurred amid the civil rights movements in the late fifties where intimidation, reprisals, and bombings were frequent. The most recent surge was in the late 1970's when the total membership was 10000.
Being one of the last remaining superpowers and a salient Western nation, the United States has been the victim of anti- Western terrorist actions, particularly since the late sixties, when violent went from occasional South American incidents to a popular thing to do in the Middle East. The Achille Lauro hijacking is only one of many examples of innocent but symbolic Americans being the target of primarily Palestinian/anti Israel terrorism. In this case, the safety of foreign travel is jeopardized and relations are often strained.